African Grey Parrots (Personality, Diet, Health, and Caring)

Last Updated on December 24, 2023 by Ali Shahid

African Grey Parrots, originating from the equatorial regions of Africa, are well-known for their intelligence and charming qualities. These parrots, medium-sized and predominantly grey with a vibrant scarlet tail, not only catch the eye but also possess an incredible talent for mimicking human speech.

They can be found in a variety of habitats, ranging from dense forests to savannahs, and have even been observed in cultivated areas and gardens. In the wild, these parrots boast an impressive lifespan of around 22.7 years on average.

However, with proper care in captivity, they can thrive for up to 60 years, making them enduring companions for those who opt to have them as pets. The combination of their intelligence and lengthy lifespan renders African Grey Parrots captivating subjects of study and cherished pets worldwide.

African Grey Parrots

Types of African Grey Parrots

African Grey Parrots can be classified into two main types: the Congo African Grey Parrots and the Timneh African Grey Parrots. The Congo African Grey Parrot, also known as the Grey Parrot, is an Old World parrot native to equatorial Africa. Their habitat spans countries such as Angola, Cameroon, the Congo, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda.

Recognizable by their predominantly grey feathers and distinctive bright red tail, Congo African Greys are slightly taller than their Timneh counterparts, measuring 13 to 16 inches from beak to tail, and feature a solid black beak.

In contrast, the Timneh African Grey Parrot, once considered a subspecies, is now regarded as a distinct species. Indigenous to the western regions of the moist Upper Guinean forests and adjacent savannas in West Africa, their range includes Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, southern Mali, and eastwards to at least 70 km east of the Bandama River in Ivory Coast.

Timneh parrots are smaller and darker than Congo African Greys, displaying a dull, dark maroon tail and a horn-colored patch on the upper mandible. They have a length of 28–33 centimeters (11–13 inches) and weigh between 275–375 grams (9.7–13.2 oz).

Distinguishing features include the Congo African Greys being larger with a more vibrant red tail, while Timneh African Greys are known for their calm demeanor, adaptability to changes, and quicker acquisition of speech.

Timneh parrots exhibit a darker grey coloration on the head, back, and upper chest, featuring a distinct “V” shape of dark feathers over a lighter shade on their abdomen. Their beaks are pink to beige, with black sides on the upper beak and entirely black on the lower beak. Some regard Timneh parrots as less sensitive compared to Congo African Greys. Despite these variations, both types share remarkable intelligence and an ability to mimic human speech.

Intelligence and Communication Skills

African Grey Parrots have gained recognition for their remarkable intelligence and communication prowess, often showcasing abilities comparable to those of young children and, in some instances, surpassing adults in specific cognitive tasks.

Vocabulary and Mimicry Talents

These parrots are particularly noted for their extraordinary aptitude in mimicking human speech. They possess the capacity to learn and indefinitely retain new words, with some individuals amassing an impressive vocabulary exceeding 100 different words. On average, African Greys acquire around 60 words, a significantly higher number compared to many other parrot species.

Beyond verbal mimicry, they can reproduce non-language-based sounds from their surroundings. Additionally, African Grey Parrots display an understanding of word and phrase meanings, using them contextually. They can discern appropriate moments to vocalize and even know what to express.

Cognitive Skills and Intelligence

Various studies have revealed the high cognitive abilities of African Grey Parrots. Their performance in cognitive tasks has been shown to surpass that of 5-year-old humans in certain scenarios. For instance, they excel in the “inference by exclusion” test, where a reward is concealed in one of two cups, and subjects deduce its location after observing an empty cup.

In another study, an African Grey named Griffin outperformed 6- to 8-year-old children and demonstrated comparable or slightly superior performance to 21 Harvard undergraduates in a complex version of the classic shell game. This game assesses the brain’s ability to retain memory of items no longer visible and update this information when presented with new data.

Notable African Grey Parrots in Research

A prominent figure in African Grey Parrot research is Alex, the subject of a thirty-year experiment conducted by animal psychologist Irene Pepperberg. Alex showcased an array of cognitive abilities, including counting to six in English, accurately labeling objects based on shape and color, and distinguishing groups of objects by color, material, and shape. Alex also exhibited a conceptual understanding akin to “zero” and, remarkably, posed an existential question by inquiring about his own color. This unique ability made Alex the only known animal ever to ask such a question.

Behavior and Personality

African Grey Parrots stand out for their high intelligence and sociable nature, often forming strong connections with their owners. These charming birds are renowned for their exceptional talking abilities, ranking among the best talkers among pet parrots. However, their emotional sensitivity is notable, and they may experience bouts of depression if they feel bored or neglected.

Bonding and Social Behavior

African Grey Parrots readily form bonds, typically with a specific member of the family or, in some cases, with males or females exclusively. While this one-on-one connection can foster closeness, it may occasionally result in aggression towards others. In their natural habitat, these highly social birds spend nearly 24 hours a day with their mate or flock.

Although the bonding process may take time and encounter setbacks, careful and attentive care can lead your African Grey to appreciate and even depend on your companionship. Contrary to the misconception that they bond with only one person, African Greys can form relationships with various individuals, and early socialization, family interaction, and effective communication lay the groundwork for a well-rounded parrot.

Playfulness and Need for Stimulation

African Grey Parrots exhibit a playful nature, enjoying activities like climbing and chewing. To ensure their well-being, they require ample mental stimulation. This can be achieved by introducing new exploration opportunities and exposing them to different situations and people. Offering a diverse range of toys, including foraging, destructible, puzzle/manipulative, and educational toys, helps fulfill their daily need for mental engagement.

Common Behavioral Issues and Management

Behavioral challenges in African Grey Parrots encompass feather-destructive behavior, aggression, inappropriate noise-making, and excessive vocalization. These issues often have multiple causes, including personality, natural behavior in the wild, environment, captive care, hormonal influences, and potential medical conditions.

Feather plucking may indicate boredom, emphasizing the importance of providing toys and time out of the cage for their happiness. If a parrot displays signs of fear or agitation, giving them space fosters a trusting relationship. Regular interaction and training sessions, spanning several hours each day, contribute to a contented African Grey. Many owners find that these parrots enjoy having background stimuli, such as television or radio when left alone.

Care and Maintenance

Ideal Living Space and Environment

African Grey Parrots thrive in spacious and comfortable living quarters. A suitable cage for these parrots should be a minimum of 2 feet deep by 3 feet wide by 4 feet high (61 x 91 x 122 cm) with a playpen top and tray. The cage should feature horizontal sidebars to facilitate climbing and exercise. Placing the cage in an area where the parrot can engage with family members is crucial, as African Greys are social birds that flourish with human interaction.

Interaction and Training Needs

Regular interaction and training are vital for the mental and emotional well-being of African Grey Parrots. Devoting several hours each day to interacting with and train your parrot is crucial. Early socialization, family engagement, and cognitive communication play pivotal roles in nurturing a well-rounded African Grey Parrot. Consistency and positive reinforcement are essential components for successful training.

Importance of a Varied and Balanced Diet

Maintaining a varied and balanced diet is crucial for the health of African Grey Parrots. In the wild, their diet includes a mix of seeds, nuts, fruits, berries, and vegetation. A healthy pet African Grey Parrot’s diet should encompass a variety of fruits, vegetables, seeds, and nuts, along with access to fresh water. Given their susceptibility to calcium and vitamin A deficiencies, providing a well-balanced diet tailored to their specific nutritional needs is essential.

Common Health Issues and Prevention

African Grey Parrots may face various health issues, including feather-destructive behavior, respiratory diseases, hypocalcemia syndrome, and circovirus (PBFD virus). Preventive measures include ensuring a proper living environment, offering a balanced diet, and scheduling regular veterinary check-ups. Maintaining cleanliness in their living space is crucial to prevent the spread of diseases and promote overall health.

African Grey Parrots as Pets

Factors to Consider Before Adoption

Adopting an African Grey Parrot can be a rewarding experience, but it requires careful consideration of several factors. These intelligent birds demand a substantial investment of time, attention, and mental stimulation to thrive. Additionally, they need a spacious living environment and a well-balanced diet. For those unfamiliar with caring for pet birds, the African Grey Parrot may present a challenging first choice due to their intricate needs and sensitivity.

Bonding with the Owner

African Grey Parrots are renowned for forming strong bonds with their owners, often developing a specific connection with one individual in the family. However, this exclusive bond may lead to aggression towards others. To foster a well-rounded personality, it is crucial to socialize the parrot with multiple family members and new acquaintances. Building trust and interpreting the parrot’s body language are essential steps in establishing a robust bond.

Training and Handling

Training plays a pivotal role in the care of African Grey Parrots, contributing to a stronger bond between the owner and the bird while ensuring proper handling. Consistency and positive reinforcement are fundamental to successful training.

Teaching basic commands, such as stepping up and stepping down, can enhance the ease and safety of handling the parrot. Devoting several hours each day to interact and train your African Grey Parrot is essential for their mental and emotional well-being. This commitment ensures a fulfilling relationship between the bird and its owner.

Threats and Conservation

The African Grey Parrot encounters serious threats in its natural environment, primarily stemming from habitat loss and poaching. Habitat destruction in Africa is chiefly propelled by deforestation, logging, and agricultural expansion, resulting in a notable decrease in the wild grey parrot population.

These birds rely on forest habitats for their survival, but as these forests are cleared, they lose essential nesting and feeding grounds. The illegal pet trade poses another significant danger, with African Grey Parrots being the world’s second most trafficked parrot. Studies suggest that approximately 20 percent of the African grey parrot wild population is captured annually for this trade, leading to a substantial decline in their numbers.

Numerous organizations are actively engaged in safeguarding African Grey Parrots. The World Parrot Trust, for instance, has been tirelessly working to combat the trade in Grey Parrots, facilitating the rescue of thousands in West and central Africa.

In 2016, compelling data, along with a 75,000-signature petition, was presented at the Conference of the Parties for CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora).

This led to enhanced protections for the species, with African Grey Parrots now listed in CITES Appendix I, offering the highest level of protection under the Treaty due to the imminent threat of extinction. Despite these legal safeguards, conservation efforts have primarily occurred outside the parrot’s native habitat, emphasizing the need for additional measures such as a recovery plan, a systematic monitoring scheme, and educational campaigns.

Pet owners can actively contribute to African Grey Parrot conservation. A crucial step is to be well-informed about the bird’s source before making a purchase. Conducting thorough research before acquiring an African Grey Parrot as a pet is essential, understanding the significant demands they entail and ensuring that the bird has not been captured from the wild. Opting to adopt or purchase parrots from reputable sources can help diminish the demand that sustains the illegal pet trade, thereby playing a vital role in conservation efforts.

Fun Facts and Trivia

African Grey Parrots stand out for their remarkable intelligence, earning them a spot as one of the most sought-after pet bird species. Displaying cognitive and emotional capabilities comparable to a 5-year-old human child, these parrots exhibit an extraordinary ability to learn an extensive vocabulary of human words. What sets them apart is their adept use of these words in context to engage in meaningful communication with their owners.

Two prevalent types of African Grey Parrots exist: the Congo African Grey and the Timneh African Grey. The Congo African Grey, distinguished by its larger size and lighter gray plumage, features a solid black beak. On the other hand, the Timneh African Grey, slightly smaller than its Congo counterpart, boasts darker feathers.

Social beings by nature, African Grey Parrots thrive in large, multigenerational broods, fostering unhindered interaction between the younger and older members. Their daily routines involve substantial socialization and vocalization. In their natural habitat, these parrots exhibit an impressive ability to cover up to 10 kilometers a day. Additionally, they showcase monogamous behavior, choosing to nest solitarily in trees with suitable hollows for their eggs.

Delving into historical and cultural significance, one notable African Grey Parrot is Alex, the subject of a thirty-year experiment by animal psychologist Irene Pepperberg. Alex demonstrated an astonishing range of skills, including identifying objects, making requests, refusing, categorizing, and quantifying over 80 different items. Remarkably, he posed an existential question, asking about his own color—a unique feat in the animal kingdom.

Another renowned African Grey Parrot is N’kisi, celebrated for his extensive vocabulary, sense of humor, and potentially telepathic abilities. In contemporary popular culture, Apollo, an African Grey Parrot, has garnered attention on TikTok. Operating under the handle @apolloandfrens, Apollo entertains over 620,000 followers by answering questions on command and expressing his thoughts with clarity, showcasing the ongoing allure of these intelligent and engaging birds.

African Grey Parrots for Sale and Price

African Grey Parrots have gained popularity as pets due to their remarkable intelligence and ability to mimic human speech. The cost of acquiring one of these highly sought-after birds typically ranges between $1,500 and $3,500, with variations based on factors like age, genetics, and gender. Notably, Congo African Greys tend to be more budget-friendly compared to their Timneh counterparts.

When contemplating the purchase of an African Grey Parrot, it is imperative to choose reputable sources to ensure the bird’s overall health and well-being. Several options are available for prospective buyers in the United States:

  1. Birds Now: A comprehensive website listing African Grey Parrots for sale and adoption in California, sourced from aviaries, breeders, and bird rescues.
  2. Mega Bird Store: An online platform offering African Grey Parrots for adoption from reputable breeders, presenting a range of prices.
  3. Petzlover: A website featuring African Grey Parrots for sale in California, provided by esteemed breeders and individual sellers.
  4. Avalon Aviary Bird Store: A dedicated bird store raising over 25 parrot species, including both Congo and Timneh African Greys.
  5. Parrots Naturally: A bird store and breeding facility specializing in Congo and Timneh African Greys, alongside other parrot species.

Prior to making a purchase, it is crucial to consider the ongoing costs associated with the care of African Grey Parrots, encompassing expenses for food, housing, and veterinary services. These birds necessitate a substantial investment of time, attention, and mental stimulation to thrive, emphasizing the significance of preparedness for the enduring financial commitment involved in their lifetime care.


African Grey Parrots are truly extraordinary beings, celebrated for their intelligence, communication prowess, and delightful personalities. Originating from the equatorial regions of Africa, these birds exist in two main types: the Congo African Grey Parrots and the Timneh African Grey Parrots. With a reputation for an extensive vocabulary and impressive mimicry skills, they often showcase cognitive abilities on par with those of young children.

These social creatures form strong and affectionate bonds with their owners, demanding a substantial investment of time, attention, and mental stimulation for optimal well-being. Despite their endearing qualities, African Grey Parrots confront significant threats in their native habitats, primarily stemming from habitat loss and poaching. Fortunately, various organizations are actively engaged in safeguarding these parrots, and pet owners can contribute significantly by ensuring responsible adoption or purchase practices from reputable sources.

Owning an African Grey Parrot is a commitment that spans their long lifespan and intricate needs. Providing a spacious living environment, a well-balanced diet, and regular veterinary check-ups are essential elements of their care. Training and socialization emerge as pivotal aspects in nurturing their well-rounded development. In embracing the joys of companionship with these remarkable birds, responsible ownership becomes a shared responsibility for both their welfare and the preservation of their species.




  • Ali Shahid

    Ali Shahid is a veterinarian by profession and an animal lover. He loves to give expert opinions about different animals. He has worked in top organization of birds like Bigbird Feed and Poultry Research institute. He loves birds, especially parrots and has great experience in different parrot farms.

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