Exploring Australia’s Cockatoos: Species, Conservation, and Care Tips

Last Updated on December 22, 2023 by Ali Shahid

Cockatoos, those big, chatty parrots with fancy crests, are like Australia’s rockstars in the animal kingdom. Imagine, there are 14 kinds of these cool birds living right here. They’ve been around for a while, playing a big part in how things work in Australia. 

The word ‘cockatoo’ comes from Malay, and it means ‘vice’ or ‘grip’—that’s a nod to their super strong beaks. So, as we dive into the world of Aussie cockatoos, we’re going to uncover all the cool things about them—their quirks, what they do, and where they call home. 

From the famous Sulphur-crested Cockatoo to the not-so-famous White Crested Cockatoo, there’s a lot to learn and enjoy about these birds. Come along with us as we explore the fascinating world of cockatoos in Australia—it’s a journey you won’t want to miss!

Cockatoos in Australia

Types of Cockatoos in Australia

Australia is like a happening hub for all kinds of cockatoos – 14 different types, to be exact. These birds are a big deal in Australia, known for being big, living a long time, and being pretty loud. Among the Aussie cockatoos, the white ones are the popular crowd. Four out of the bunch are mostly white, and you’ve probably seen the Sulphur-crested Cockatoo – it’s that impressive white one making a statement. These birds rock the white look and sport these cool curved beaks.

Now, there’s a special one among the white crew – the White Crested Cockatoo, aka the umbrella cockatoo. This medium-sized bird loves hanging out in the tropical rainforests of Indonesia’s islands. It’s got this large, attention-grabbing head crest that’s kind of like a semi-circle.

But wait, there’s more! The black cockatoos are a big deal too, with six species rocking the mostly black vibe. Check out the endangered Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo from southwest Western Australia or the Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo. These guys have black feathers and tails but also throw in some red, yellow, or white markings for a pop of color.

And there’s even more cockatoo variety Down Under – like the Galah, a pretty common species, and the Pink Cockatoo, which is kind of a homebody and doesn’t let other pairs crash its space for breeding.

All these birds, each with their own style, are like the VIPs of Australia’s wildlife party. They bring their unique flavors to the ecosystem, giving us a sneak peek into the wild and wonderful world of birds.

The Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo

Meet the Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, or as the scientists call it, Cacatua galerita. This big, white bird is a true Aussie native, hanging out in Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, and some nearby islands. You can’t miss it because of its cool sulfur-yellow crest that it can show off or tuck away on its head.

Now, these birds are total social butterflies, flying in groups of a few dozen to a few hundred. And let me tell you, their calls are no whisper – they can be heard from miles away. You can find them chillin’ in all kinds of spots, from tropical rainforests to suburban gardens. And guess what? They’re not big on moving around. Nope, they like to stick to the same place year-round.

What’s on the menu for these cockatoos? Well, it’s a veggie feast with grass seeds, plants, nuts, and a side of insects. They’re not picky eaters, that’s for sure. You’ll catch them having brunch and dinner in groups, especially during the mornings and evenings. Oh, and when they’re not munching away, they’re into a bit of tree grooming – keeping those beaks in top shape.

Now, these birds aren’t just pretty faces. They’re brainy and can adapt like pros. Some of them are so cool with humans that they might just land on your hand or shoulder. That’s not something you see every day in the animal world, right? 

And get this – they’ve got a pretty long life. In the wild, they can hit 40 years, but in captivity, they can stick around for a whopping 100 years or more. But here’s the thing – their numbers are dropping because of places getting messed up, and that’s not good news.

The White Crested Cockatoo

Let me introduce you to the White Crested Cockatoo, also known as the Umbrella Cockatoo or scientifically called Cacatua alba. These majestic birds call the Moluccan islands home, places like Halmahera, Bacan, Ternate, Tidore, and Kasiruta. They’re not your average-sized birds, measuring about 46 cm (18 in) long and weighing from 400 g (14 oz) for smaller females to a hefty 800 g (28 oz) for the larger males.

So, picture this bird – mostly white with a splash of yellow on the wings. The guys have a broader head and a bigger beak, and their eyes can be brown or black. As for the ladies, some may sport reddish/brown eyes, while the guys keep it dark brown or black.

Now, these birds aren’t just about looks. They’re social and smart cookies, hanging out in groups of around 20 birds. They’re like the problem-solving champs of the bird world, and the guys might show a bit more toughness from time to time. When it comes to love, they’re monogamous, sticking with one partner for life and teaming up to raise their little ones.

On the menu for White Crested Cockatoos is a veggie delight – nuts, fruits, and seeds. And get this – they’re not just about looking good and eating well; they can mimic human voices and the sounds around them. Home for these birds is in the hollows of large trees, where they lay about two white eggs in a clutch. Both mom and dad take turns sitting on the eggs during the 28-day incubation period. The chicks spread their wings about 84 days after hatching and become independent in 15–18 weeks.

Here’s the bummer – these fantastic birds are in trouble. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) considers them endangered. Why? Well, people have been capturing them for the cage bird trade, and their homes are disappearing. Even with these challenges, these birds are like the superheroes of the avian world – they can live 40–60 years in captivity, and some say they might even outlive that. In the wild, they might live a bit shorter, but their exact lifespan is a bit of a mystery.

Endangered Cockatoos in Australia

Australia is a hotspot for a bunch of cockatoo species, but sadly, some are hanging by a thread because of habitat loss, nesting competition, and human activities. One of the big names on the endangered list is the Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo, calling southwest Western Australia its home.

Picture this bird – it’s a hefty one, mostly greyish black, with a wingspan stretching to 110 cm (43 in). It rocks a cool crest on its head and sports a standout off-white patch on its cheek. You’d usually find this guy chilling in Eucalyptus woodlands, especially where wandoo or salmon gum trees grow, along with nearby pine plantations and sandplains or kwongan heath with a mix of Hakea, Banksia, and Grevillea shrubs.

Now, here’s the sad news – the Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo is facing some serious threats. Habitat loss is a biggie, with trees suitable for nesting being wiped out faster than you can say “cockatoo.” Research says they need native vegetation remnants within 12 kilometers of their nests to raise healthy chicks.

Survival for these birds is an uphill battle. Habitat loss, nest competition, human activities like shooting and poaching, and the loss of about 87% of their breeding habitat have knocked their numbers down. And let’s not forget, they’ve got to watch out for parasites and predators, with the wedge-tailed eagle being the only natural adult cockatoo threat.

But there’s a glimmer of hope. Conservation warriors from the Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth Zoo, private bird enthusiasts, landowners, and local shires have joined forces. Their mission? Stop the habitat decline and shout out to the world about the Carnaby’s cockatoos’ struggle. WWF and Birdlife Australia are also on the scene, working with private landowners to protect cockatoo homes and take action like installing nesting boxes and planting food trees.

And it’s not just Carnaby’s – other cockatoos like Baudin’s Cockatoo, Forest Red-Tailed Black Cockatoo, Glossy Black-Cockatoo, and Major Mitchell’s Cockatoo are facing similar battles. These guys need habitat protection, a shoutout from the public, and some serious research on what makes them tick and what’s ticking them off.

Now, cockatoos in Australia are pretty savvy – they’ve set up shop in all kinds of homes, from rainforests and savannas to woodlands and even city parks. Some, like the Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, have even figured out how to raid our trash bins, spreading the word among their Sydney bird buddies.

They’ve also turned into farm enthusiasts, nibbling on crops and changing up their menu with the seasons. In the forest, some are living the chill life, thanks to a buffet of food always on the table. With brains and curiosity, they’ve become the “winners of urbanization,” adapting and thriving wherever they can snag a bite to eat.

Cockatoos and Their Behaviors

Cockatoos are pretty cool birds known for being lively, affectionate, and super smart. They’re not lone rangers – these guys are social butterflies, always hanging out in pairs or groups. There’s no such thing as a solo cockatoo!

Their social scene is pretty happening, involving lots of chit-chat and grooming sessions. They can recognize the sounds of their crew and keep their friendships tight by helping each other out with a bit of feather maintenance during these grooming sessions. Plus, these guys are all about monogamy – they pick a life partner and stick with them through thick and thin. If their partner sadly passes away, they might end up flying solo for a while.

Now, let’s talk about food. In the wild, cockatoos are like foodies, munching on seeds, fruits, nuts, berries, flowers, and whatever else they can find. They’re a bit picky, though, sometimes going for just one or two types of seeds and nuts – they know what they like! And some, like the Galah, mix things up with grasses, leaf buds, and even the occasional insect for that extra protein boost.

And here’s a fun fact: some cockatoos have a quirky habit of scratching around on the ground. Take the slender-billed cockatoo, for example – it’s like they’re playing detective, finding their grub down below. These birds are not just about looking good and being social; they’ve got some interesting behaviors up their feathers!

Unique Behaviors of Specific Species

Cockatoos are a fascinating bunch, and their behaviors are like a feathered show of intelligence. Take the cockatoos in Sydney, for instance – they’ve picked up this savvy trick of lifting garbage bin lids to snag some grub. And get this, it’s not an instinct; they learned it from watching their fellow feathered friends. It’s like the bird version of a neighborhood potluck, but with trash cans.

These guys are also chatterboxes, but not just with their voices. They’re masters of body language. If a cockatoo is in chill mode or getting ready for a nap, it fluffs up its feathers, maybe stands on one foot, and might give you the half-closed-eye look. But if it’s feeling bossy or confident, it’s all about wing spreading, crest raising, jumping, flapping, and making a whole lot of noise. It’s like a feathery dance party to express their feelings and intentions.

Now, let’s talk about their social life. In captivity, cockatoos become like family with their owners. But here’s the deal – they’re pretty high-maintenance when it comes to attention. If you slack off on the quality time, they might get a bit down in the dumps, start acting a bit off, or even resort to self-mutilation. They’re not all serious, though; these guys can be playful, a tad mischievous, and let’s be honest, exceptionally loud. It’s like having a feathery friend who’s always ready for a good time!


Cockatoos aren’t just showstoppers in Australia’s wildlife; they’re like the unsung heroes of the ecosystem. These birds aren’t just a pretty face; they’re vital for keeping the natural balance in check. It Is not just about saving a species; it’s about keeping Australia’s wildlife party diverse and thriving. So, when we protect these feathered friends, we’re not just helping them – we are keeping the whole Australian ecosystem healthy and happy. It’s like giving a high-five to nature!


  1. https://www.natureaustralia.org.au/what-we-do/our-priorities/wildlife/wildlife-stories/cockatoos-of-australia/
  2. https://www.birdhealth.com.au/australian-cockatoos
  3. https://www.environment.sa.gov.au/goodliving/posts/2019/04/sa-cockatoos
  4. https://www.australiangeographic.com.au/topics/wildlife/2019/03/australias-five-black-cockatoos/
  5. https://www.parrots.org/encyclopedia/white-crested-cockatoo


  • Ali Shahid

    Ali Shahid is a veterinarian by profession and an animal lover. He loves to give expert opinions about different animals. He has worked in top organization of birds like Bigbird Feed and Poultry Research institute. He loves birds, especially parrots and has great experience in different parrot farms.

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