Cockatiels (Personality, Care, Diet, Health, and Breeding)

Last Updated on March 16, 2024 by Ali Shahid

Cockatiels, with their vivid colors, distinctive crests, and playful personalities, have captivated the hearts of pet enthusiasts worldwide, emerging as one of the most beloved avian companions. Hailing from the natural landscapes of Australia, these sociable and clever creatures have seamlessly adjusted to domestic living, endearing themselves to people through their amiable and gentle disposition.

Sharing insights on the delightful qualities of cockatiels, a Reddit user emphasized their intelligence, distinct personalities, and the crucial understanding that no avian companion should be perceived as an “effortless” or “low-maintenance” pet. Renowned for their joyful antics and loving nature, cockatiels boast visual charm and establish deep emotional connections with their human counterparts.

Their charming behaviors, including the expressive use of their crest and remarkable mimicry skills, contribute to their overall allure. Whether whistling a cheerful melody, engaging in a quest for nourishment, or simply reveling in a loving touch, cockatiels seamlessly blend a hint of the wild with abundant joy in our homes.


Origin and Natural Habitat

The Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), also known as the weero or quarrion, stands out as a medium-sized parrot, forming a distinct branch within the cockatoo family native to Australia. Thriving in inland areas away from the coast, these birds inhabit Australian wetlands, scrublands, and bushlands, showcasing a preference for arid or semi-arid regions in proximity to water sources. 

Their nomadic nature leads them to move in search of available food and water, often appearing in pairs or small flocks. Key regions of their presence include western Queensland, Alice Springs, the Kimberleys, and the northwestern part of Western Australia.

In their natural habitat, cockatiels gravitate towards relatively open spaces like sparse woods and savannah grasslands, relying on trees for nesting and nighttime rest. Their proximity to water is crucial to their survival, as they require substantial moisture. Beyond their environmental adaptation, cockatiels exhibit remarkable social behavior, forming flocks and establishing close bonds with their caretakers.

These resilient birds contend with significant seasonal temperature variations, enduring differences of up to 40°C between summer and winter. The initial classification of the cockatiel dates back to 1793 when Scottish writer and naturalist Robert Kerr described it as Psittacus hollandicus. Later, in 1832, Wagler designated it to its own genus, Nymphicus, with the specific name Hollandicus referencing the explorations of New Holland, present-day Australia.

Physical Description and Characteristics

Cockatiels typically reach a modest size, measuring around 12 to 13 inches from head to tail. Maintaining a healthy weight falls within the range of two to four ounces.

They are characterized by their compact size, erect crest, and elongated tail feathers boast diverse colorations and patterns resulting from selective breeding and various mutations. This selective process has given rise to a spectrum of color variations, including normal grey, lutino, cinnamon, pearl, pied, white-faced, and albino.

The realm of sexual dimorphism comes into play in certain cockatiel mutations, offering a visual means of distinguishing between males and females. In the standard grey coloration, male cockatiels feature a yellow face, vibrant orange cheek patches, and a uniformly grey tail. 

Conversely, females exhibit a grey face, less vivid orange cheek patches, and yellow or white bars on the underside of their tail feathers. However, such distinctions may not be as apparent in other color mutations.

Beyond their striking physical traits, cockatiels are celebrated for their amicable and gentle disposition, forging robust connections with their human companions. Their capacity to convey emotions through the movement of their crest and their adeptness at mimicry add an extra layer to their charming personality.

Cockatiel Behavior

Wildlife experts say wild cockatiels display a nomadic lifestyle, forming flocks ranging from a single pair to large groups comprising hundreds of birds. These highly social creatures traverse the landscape together in search of sustenance, emphasizing their cooperative nature. Allopreening, a common behavior in the wild, contributes to their sociability, making them affectionate companions and well-suited as pets.

Wild cockatiels confront significant seasonal temperature fluctuations, enduring variations of up to 40°C between summer and winter. They are diurnal, remaining active during the day, spending the majority of their time either foraging on the ground for food or perched in trees. Their vocal nature, marked by expressive sounds and communication within the flock, reflects their social dynamics.

Cockatiels are quiet, nondestructive, and easily manageable as pets. Their gentle disposition makes them excellent companions for various types of families, including those with children. Notable for their playful tendencies, they enjoy simple toys and form early bonds, displaying their preference for companionship even in captivity. Some cockatiel groups in the wild consist of several thousand birds.

Cockatiels, being highly intelligent, can be trained to talk, whistle, and perch on your shoulder, adding an interactive dimension to the pet-owner relationship. Ideal for beginners and families with children, these birds are recommended for their gentle nature, straightforward care requirements, and entertaining personalities. Given their social inclination, it’s advisable to either keep a pair of cockatiels or spend ample time with a single bird to fulfill their need for companionship.

Speech and Vocalization

Cockatiels are renowned for their vocal abilities, emitting normal calls, whistles, and an array of sounds. In their natural habitat, these vocalizations play a vital role in communicating with fellow flock members. While not all cockatiels develop talking skills, many, especially males, can be trained to mimic words and phrases. 

Although their speech may not match the clarity of larger parrot species, consistent training and repetition can enable them to imitate language. The extent to which a cockatiel can learn words varies, with some sources suggesting they can grasp more than 200 words. 

However, this capacity is contingent on the individual bird and the dedication invested in training. To embark on teaching a cockatiel to talk, establishing a bond with the bird, creating a comfortable environment, and employing repetition and positive reinforcement are paramount. 

Begin with uncomplicated one or two-syllable words, progressively advancing to more intricate phrases. The key ingredients for success lie in maintaining consistency and exercising patience throughout training.

Breeding Cockatiels

Cockatiels are known for their monogamous nature, forming lifelong bonds with their mates. In the wild, their breeding cycles coincide with the onset of the rainy season, signifying increased availability of grains and seeds. As nomadic birds, they relocate to areas rich in food sources. Nest sites, conveniently located near ample grain and freshwater supplies, are essential for raising their young. 

These cavity nesters utilize natural tree hollows for this purpose, with both male and female birds actively involved in site selection and subsequent incubation duties. Five weeks post-hatching, young cockatiels are ready to fledge, initially staying close to their family group before gradually joining larger nomadic flocks. 

Wild cockatiels typically have a single brood per season. In captivity, breeding is recommended for cockatiels aged at least 18 months to prevent issues like egg binding in younger females and inadequate care for offspring in younger birds. Providing sufficient space, such as an aviary or spacious cage, along with a proper diet, is crucial for successful reproduction. 

Cockatiels typically breed during spring and early autumn, coinciding with longer days and mild weather. However, depending on environmental factors, some birds may breed at other times of the year. Creating a breeding-friendly environment that mimics their natural habitat is essential. It’s important to note that aggression can arise during breeding, especially among males vying for the female’s attention. 

Envious squabbles may occur if the male perceives excessive focus on eggs or chicks. During courtship, mating cockatiels engage in gentle nuzzling and beak nibbling. The male employs specific behaviors, such as head bobbing, feather fluffing, and a courtship dance, to attract the female. Soft chirps and serenades further characterize the male’s courtship efforts.

Females respond by vocalizing and showing interest in the courtship display. In captivity, limiting a pair to no more than two clutches per year is advisable. After each clutch, removing the nest box prompts a break from breeding, preventing immediate re-breeding and ensuring proper care for the young. This practice safeguards the well-being of both the parents and offspring. Reduce the Number of Words by 30 percent

How to Care for Cockatiels?

Diet and Nutrition

Cockatiels primarily eat seeds, grains, fruits, and berries. To ensure your pet cockatiel gets a balanced diet, offer a mix of seeds, pellets, fruits, vegetables, and occasional treats. Aim for around 60-80% pellets, 15-30% vegetables, and the remaining portion as seeds, fruits, and treats. Providing variety and ensuring proper nutrition is crucial for your cockatiel’s overall health and well-being.

Housing and Environment

When choosing a cage for your cockatiel, consider its size, bar spacing, and perch placement. The recommended minimum cage size for a single cockatiel is 20 inches wide, 20 inches deep, and 24 inches high. If you have a pair of cockatiels, go for a cage that’s at least 36 inches long, 24 inches wide, and 24 inches high. 

Ensure the bar spacing is between 1/2 inch and 5/8 inch to prevent your bird from getting stuck or escaping. Opt for perches with a diameter of about 5/8 inch to 1.5 inches, placing multiple perches at different heights and distances to allow your cockatiel to fly or glide. Avoid using sandpaper perch covers, as they can be abrasive to your bird’s feet.

Cockatiels are social creatures, so providing them with social interaction and playtime is crucial. Spend at least one-hour daily holding or playing with your cockatiel, and include toys and activities within their cage to keep them mentally stimulated. 

Grooming and hygiene are also vital for your cockatiel’s well-being. Offer a shallow bowl of warm water for bathing 2-3 times a week, or gently mist your bird with warm water from a clean spray bottle.

Training Your Cockatiel

From my personal experience, training your cockatiel is a step-by-step journey involving trust-building, trick-teaching, talking training, and the essential use of positive reinforcement paired with patience.

1. Establishing Trust and Comfort

When you first bring your cockatiel home, it’s crucial to give the bird some time to get used to its new environment. Spend time near the cage, engaging in soft conversation or gentle whistling. After about a week, when the bird is comfortable with your presence, introduce treats through the cage bars. 

Offer veggies, fruits, dry cereal, or unsalted popcorn that your bird enjoys. As you hold the treat, speak softly to the bird. Once the cockatiel starts taking treats from your hand, you can gradually progress to teaching it to step up onto your hand.

2. Trick Training

Cockatiels can learn tricks like turning around, shaking hands, or walking across a tightrope. To initiate trick training, entice your cockatiel with an edible reward such as a piece of hulled sunflower or a bit of spray millet. For instance, to teach the bird to turn around, place it on a perch, and with a treat below its beak, command “Turn” or a chosen cue. Gradually adjust the treat’s position, prompting the bird to turn to receive it. When the desired trick is performed, praise your cockatiel and reward it.

3. Teaching Your Cockatiel to Talk

Cockatiels can mimic syllables and produce robotic replicas of words or sounds. To train your bird to talk, establish a bond and create a comfortable environment. Narrate your actions, such as feeding, using simple phrases. Whistling can also be introduced, as cockatiels may find it easier to mimic whistling than speaking.

4. Utilizing Positive Reinforcement and Patience

In my experience, positive reinforcement is a vital aspect of cockatiel training. Reward your bird when it exhibits the desired behavior, encouraging it to repeat the action. Consistency and patience are crucial throughout the training process, respecting each bird’s unique learning pace. Rushing can hinder progress, so it’s important to be attentive to your cockatiel’s comfort level and allow the learning process to unfold naturally.

Common HealIssues in Cockatiels

Cockatiels, like many other pet birds, can face various health challenges. Here are some of the most common issues:

  1. Respiratory Disease: Cockatiels often suffer from respiratory diseases caused by bacteria, such as Chlamydophila psittaci. Birds carrying this bacteria might not exhibit symptoms but can spread it through their stool and respiratory secretions, posing a risk to other birds. Signs of respiratory disease include watery eyes, sneezing, wheezing, coughing, nasal discharge, and, in severe cases, weakness and enlarged livers.
  2. Internal Parasites: Giardia, an internal parasite, is a common problem for cockatiels. Infected birds may show symptoms like diarrhea and severe itching, leading to aggressive self-attacks, especially under the wings.
  3. Gastrointestinal Yeast Infections: Cockatiels are prone to gastrointestinal yeast infections caused by Candida organisms. Birds with this condition may regurgitate, lose weight, and experience diarrhea and decreased appetite. Candida infections are more prevalent in young birds and can spread through various means, such as feeding, contaminated environments, water sources, or hand-feeding formulas.
  4. Obesity and Fatty Liver Disease: Birds on all-seed diets are at risk of becoming obese and developing fatty liver disease (hepatic lipidosis), which can be fatal. This condition is often linked to a deficiency in vitamin A, crucial for the normal development of skin cells in the respiratory tract.
  5. Reproductive Problems: Cockatiels are more prone to reproductive issues compared to budgies, even when individually housed. These problems encompass egg binding, soft-shelled to shell-less eggs, oviduct prolapse, and reproductive tumors.

It’s crucial to understand that each bird is unique, and specific problems may vary. Therefore, any treatment or remedy should be recommended by a vet after a comprehensive examination. Regular check-ups with a bird care specialist can aid in early detection and treatment, potentially averting severe, life-threatening illnesses.

Tips for First-Time Cockatiel Owners

Having a cockatiel for the first time is a fulfilling experience, but it also comes with important responsibilities. Here are some practical tips to ensure you give optimal care to your new feathered companion:

  1. Respecting Your Cockatiel’s Space: Cockatiels thrive when they have their own secure and spacious area. Provide a cage with enough room for your bird to move freely, including space for toys, perches, and feeding dishes. Place the cage in a quiet, well-lit spot, avoiding drafts and direct sunlight. Be patient and let your bird get accustomed to its new surroundings before attempting to handle it.
  2. Monitoring Health and Well-Being: Keep a close eye on your cockatiel for changes in behavior, eating habits, or physical appearance, as these can signal health issues. Look out for common problems like respiratory disease, internal parasites, yeast infections, obesity, and reproductive issues. If you spot any signs of illness, promptly seek advice from an avian veterinarian.
  3. Providing Stimulation and Social Interaction: Recognize that cockatiels are social creatures in need of mental stimulation and interaction. Offer a variety of toys and activities to keep your bird engaged. Dedicate at least an hour daily to play, train, or converse with your cockatiel. Boredom can lead to stress or behavioral problems, so keeping your bird mentally active is crucial.
  4. Regular Vet Checkups: Schedule regular check-ups with an avian veterinarian to maintain your cockatiel’s well-being. These visits include routine examinations, vaccinations, and guidance on diet, housing, and overall care. Regular vet checkups are vital for early detection and treatment of potential health issues, ensuring your cockatiel enjoys a long and healthy life.

Owning a cockatiel is a lasting commitment, as these birds can live for 20 years or more with proper care. Approach your role with patience, understanding, and love to cultivate a strong bond with your new pet.

Cockatiels for Sale and Price

The cost of a cockatiel can vary based on factors like breed, color, age, and the seller. Typically, a standard grey cockatiel may be priced at approximately $150, but the range can be quite broad, spanning from $80 to $250. 

Specifically, a lutino cockatiel might range from $150 to $250, a pied cockatiel from $110 to $170, a cinnamon cockatiel from $130 to $160, a white cockatiel from $200 to $300, and a pearl cockatiel from $150 to $200. Some sources even suggest prices as low as $60 for a common grey cockatiel.

In the United States, cockatiels are sold at pet stores such as Petco and online platforms like Adoption is also a compassionate option, with bird rescue organizations like Lonely Grey Rescue or platforms like offering opportunities to provide a home for cockatiels in need. Alternatively, you may choose to purchase from a reputable breeder.

When acquiring a cockatiel, prioritize the bird’s health. Look for signs such as clear eyes, no beak discharge, and no sneezing. Additionally, be prepared for the overall costs associated with cockatiel ownership, including a suitable cage, food, equipment, and at least one annual veterinary checkup. 

As social animals, cockatiels thrive on daily exercise and attention, so factor in time for interaction. Finally, opt for a trustworthy pet store or breeder that provides a health guarantee for the pets they sell. This ensures a happy and healthy addition to your household.


Understanding and tending to a cockatiel’s behavior is crucial for their well-being. These intelligent and social creatures thrive on attention and interaction, enjoying environments that allow them to exercise, play, and engage with their owners. Owning a cockatiel involves more than the initial purchase cost; ongoing expenses for food, housing, toys, and veterinary care should be anticipated and prepared for.

When acquiring a cockatiel, it’s vital to choose a reputable source to ensure the bird’s health. A healthy cockatiel exhibits clear, bright eyes, lacks beak discharge, and shows no signs of sneezing. Cockatiels, with their friendly and affectionate nature, make delightful pets and companions.

Their ability to mimic sounds and words adds an entertaining element to the relationship. If you’re contemplating adding a cockatiel to your family, anticipate a rewarding connection with these charming and intelligent birds. 








  • Ali Shahid

    Ali Shahid is a veterinarian by profession and an animal lover. He loves to give expert opinions about different animals. He has worked in top organization of birds like Bigbird Feed and Poultry Research institute. He loves birds, especially parrots and has great experience in different parrot farms.

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